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Provision of professional development: Overview of empowerment and deficit models


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Over the last decade, individual New Zealand schools and successive Governments have increased their funding for professional development in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) (Ham, et al 2002). This funding acknowledged the competence and confidence of teachers in the educational use of ICT directly impacted upon the capacity and capability of schools to positively engage their learners in ICT-supported learning environments (Clayton, Elliott & Saravani 2009).
Initially, the professional development followed conventional models of provision. In essence, a perceived need (i.e. teachers’ lack of personal ICT skills and theoretical knowledge to effectively use ICT) was centrally addressed. This was achieved by either the creation of a range of professional development activities, provided within a defined timeframe and facilitated by external experts or, by the funding of Advisory Services to provide guidance to individual schools (Ham, et al 2002). The initial professional development, where external experts advised and/or delivered learning events to address the identified deficiencies in teachers’ knowledge, was based upon a ‘deficit’ model of professional development (Clayton et al 2009). Influenced by the educational reforms of the 1980s, a school-focused model of professional development was introduced. This was the Information Technology Professional Development (ICT PD) initiative (ICT Strategy Reference Group 1998) resulting in the establishment of a professional development model known as the ICT PD Clusters model (Ham et al 2005).
The ICT PD model encouraged groups of schools to reflect upon teachers’ capabilities and confidence in ICT and the impact of ICTs on their teaching and learning practices. The introduction of the ICT PD model shifted investment in professional development from funding a ‘deficit’ approach to an ‘empowerment’ approach (i.e. schools’ internal reflection and decision making on how, when and why ICTs could be integrated drive the creation, provision, timing and content of school-focused professional development) (Vrasidas & Glass 2010: Niess 2006; Clayton, et al 2009). In 2009 the Ministry of Education funded an evaluation of the ICT PD. This poster will use the findings of this evaluation to graphically illustrate both empowerment and deficit models of professional development within the context of the ICT PD Clusters model.

Item Type: Book Chapter
Additional Information: Conference held 7–9 September, 2010, in Nottingham, England
Uncontrolled Keywords: professional development
Subjects: L Education > L Education (General)
Divisions: Research Facilities > Emerging Technologies Centre
Depositing User: John Clayton
Date Deposited: 20 Oct 2010 01:58
Last Modified: 21 Jul 2023 02:28

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